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Section 6. Subsets of Documentation#

As mentioned in Section 3, the Archive consists of three main components: (i) geophysics data, (ii) project material and (iii) project documentation. The latter includes geophysics metadata, geophysics georeferencing, project metadata and file description. The metadata can be thought of as that information that can easily be stored in a database and Section 5 introduces a comprehensive list of metadata fields that are most relevant for the documentation of archaeological geophysical projects. However, some Archiving Bodies store only a subset of these fields in their database or may use slightly different field names, thereby often only offering a subset of the Comprehensive Documentation. In addition, they may insist on the use of particular term lists. When compiling the relevant metadata, for example in an in-house database, it is advisable to start with a fairly comprehensive set of documentation and then 'thin it out' according to what the selected Archiving Body can hold. If the characteristics of these varying practices were captured in XML schemas and RDF vocabularies, automatic translators could be designed to facilitate simple data exchange.

To illustrate subsets of the Comprehensive Documentation it is useful to look at the ADS archive and the ADS ArchSearch database, the OASIS database, and the English Heritage geophysical survey database (EH GSdb). Out of these only the ADS can be considered an Archiving Body as it provides full archiving services for data and metadata, with data migration, preservation and accessibility (Level 4 - Accessible Archiving, in Section 3.4). However, its main search interface, ArchSearch, uses only a subset of the metadata (derived from Dublin Core metadata) when facilitating the discovery of the Archive over the Internet. In contrast, OASIS and the EH GSdb use a very full subset of the Comprehensive Documentation but do not store the rest of the Archive, like data files, georeferencing information etc. Table 5 provides the mapping of metadata fields between the Comprehensive Documentation of Section 6 and OASIS, the EH GSdb and the fields used in ArchSearch. Other Archiving Bodies and database holders will also have developed relevant data structures for their databases and mapping these subsets to the Comprehensive Documentation should not pose too much of a problem.

Project Information
Comprehensive DocumentationOASIS Form FieldEHGSdbDublin Core (ArchSearch)
Survey nameProject Details: Project NameProject TitleProject Title
Survey indexProject Details: Identifier; TypeSurvey indexIdentifiers
Survey purposeProject Details: Type of Project; DescriptionPurpose of SurveyDescription
Report summaryProject Details: DescriptionSynopsis of report contentDescription
Bibliographic referencesProject Bibliography sectionBibliographic ReferencesRelations
Survey keywordsProject Details: Monument Type; Significant FindsArchaeological Feature ClassificationsSubject
Spatial coverageProject Location: Study Area; Site CoordinatesGrid ReferenceCoverage
Administrative areaProject Location: District/Unitary Authority; ParishCounty/Unitary AuthorityCoverage
StateProject Location: County Coverage
Country(England; Scotland; Wales depending on form used.)CountryCoverage
Solid geologyProject Details - Geophysics: Solid GeologySolid Geology
Drift geologyProject Details - Geophysics: Drift GeologyDrift Geology
DurationProject Details: Project DatesOccurred betweenDates
Weather Weather
Soil condition
Land useProject Details: Current Land UseLand use
Monument typeProject Details: Monument TypeMonuments coveredSubject
Monument periodProject Details: PeriodMonument period Coverage
Scheduled Ancient Monument (SAM) numberProject Details: Identifier (Type = 'SM No.')Scheduled Ancient Monument (SAM) number Identifiers
SurveyorProject Creators: Name of Organisation; Project Director/Manager; Project SupervisorSurveyor/PersonnelCreators
ClientProject Creators: Project Brief Originator; Type of Sponsor/Funding BodyClientCreators
DepositorProject Creators: Name of OrganisationDepositorCreators
Primary archiveProject Archives: Physical; Digital; Paper - all fieldsPrimary archiveRelations
Related archivesProject Archives: Physical; Digital; Paper - all fieldsRelated archivesRelations
Copyright CopyrightCopyright
Term listDependent on Monument / Artefact fields and location of site (i.e. relevant English, Scottish, Welsh lists)
Geophysics Metadata
Comprehensive DocumentationOASIS Form FieldEHGSdbDublin Core (ArchSearch)
Survey typeTechniquesGeophysical Techniques UsedResource Type
InstrumentationProject Details - Geophysical techniques: Instrumentation / Instrument TypeInstrument Type/Instrument make
Reasons for choice of survey technique
Area surveyedProject Details - Geophysical techniques: Size of Survey AreaArea Surveyed
Method of coverage Method of coverage
Traverse separationProject Details - Geophysical techniques: Traverse SeparationTraverse Separation
Line separation
Reading intervalProject Details - Geophysical techniques: Reading IntervalReading Interval
Sampling position
Data grid size
Additional remarksProject Details - Geophysical techniques: NotesComments on Survey
Earth Resistance Surveys
Comprehensive DocumentationOASIS Form FieldEHGSdbDublin Core (ArchSearch)
Electrode configurationProject Details - Geophysical techniques: Resistivity: Electrode ConfigurationElectrode configuration
Electrode spacingProject Details - Geophysical techniques: Resistivity: Electrode Separation; Electrode Separation QualifierElectrode separation
Multiple configurations
Magnetometer Surveys
Magnetic north
Instrument drift
Low Frequency Electromagnetic Surveys
Coil configurationProject Details - Geophysical techniques: Electromagnetic: Coil Separation; Frequency; Phase
Recorded componentNotes
Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys
Comprehensive DocumentationOASIS Form FieldEHGSdbDublin Core (ArchSearch)
Antenna informationProject Details - Geophysical techniques: Ground Penetrating Radar: Centre Frequency of Antennae
Timing informationProject Details - Geophysical techniques: Ground Penetrating Radar: Time Window;
Average subsurface velocityProject Details - Geophysical techniques: Ground Penetrating Radar: Average Subsurface Velocity
Maritime Sonar Surveys
Comprehensive DocumentationOASIS Form FieldEHGSdbDublin Core (ArchSearch)
Average water velocityProject Details - Geophysical techniques: Marine - multibeam echosounder: Average Water Velocity
Sonar frequencyProject Details - Geophysical techniques: Marine - multibeam echosounder: Frequency
Beam width at nadirProject Details - Geophysical techniques: Marine - multibeam echosounder: Beam Width Nadir
Survey Methodology
Comprehensive DocumentationOASIS Form FieldEHGSdbDublin Core (ArchSearch)
Data grid layout
Data grid size
Survey direction
Line sequence
Drift value
Bias value
Comprehensive DocumentationOASIS (form field titles - not DB fields)EHGSdbDublin Core (ArchSearch)
Report titleProject Bibliography: TitleReport Title
Report reference numberProject Bibliography: Other bibliographic detailsReport Number
Report authorProject Bibliography: Author / EditorAuthor/Report Date
Report holderProject Bibliography: Place of Issue or PublicationReport held by
Table 5: Mapping of documentation: Comprehensive, OASIS, EH GSdb, ArchSearch.

In addition, the term list used for the field Survey type differs between different organisations, as indicated in Table 6. The mapping between them is straight forward.

Comprehensive DocumentationOASISEH GSdb
Magnetometer Survey (land based)MagnetometryMagnetometer
Magnetometer Survey (marine)Marine - Magnetometry
Magnetic Susceptibility (volume- or mass specific susceptibility); including random samples, gridded, lab based measurement of samples and field based in-situ measurements"Magnetic SusceptibilityMagnetic Susceptibility
Earth Resistance SurveyResistivity - AreaResistivity
Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI); including pseudosections and tomographyResistivity - ProfileResistivity Profile
Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) Resistivity Depth Sounding
Electrostatic Survey
Low Frequency ElectromagneticElectromagneticElectro-magnetic Survey
Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)Ground Penetrating RadarGround Penetrating Radar
SeismicSeismicSeismic Refraction
Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF)
Side Scan Sonar (SSS)Marine - Side Scan Sonar
Singlebeam EchosounderMarine - Singlebeam Echosounder
Multibeam EchosounderMarine - Multibeam Echosounder
Sub-bottom ProfilerMarine - Sub-bottom Profiler
Table 6: Term lists for the field Survey type

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