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    • Aerial Photography and photographs: all formats
    • Lidar
    • Remote Sensed data - CASI, thermal and multispectral data with links to another guide (focus on the specifically aerial aspects).
    • Interpreted Information (maps, overlays and records) – location, nature and format (incl. Reference to GIS etc in here without description) – need to define how much crossover with GIS guide, could you give me a bit more detail? This would purely be about how archaeologists use the information (once interpreted) and any reference to GIS would only be as the vehicle for the transmission and analysis of the information (and not about GIS per se).
    • GPS track, route, waypoint data – use, location, and format. (GPS data may have its own guide as an offshoot of the GIS guide and a few others. If it’s included here it should be specific to AP archiving considerations) – I reckon we can handle that by a cross reference and a short entry in here; which will be about linking with metadata on photos etc (which is not exclusive to aerial work).

Section 3. Digital Data Sources#

3.3 Overview of Data Formats#

The table below lists some of the common data formats you may encounter in working with aerial photographs and remotely sensed images.

Image exchange formats

FormatDescription
BIL, BIP & BSQBIL (Band Interleaved by Line), BIP (Band interleaved by Pixel) and BSQ (Band Sequential) are raster data formats used for storing single and multiband data[1].
BMPBitmap. A file extension indicating a graphics file, common in Windows applications.
GIFGraphics Interchange Format. A bitmap graphics format from CompuServe which stores screen images economically and aims to maintain their correct colours even when transferred between different computers (Mobbs 1997).
GeoTIFFAn extension to the TIF graphics standard to incorporate georeferencing information. Although currently supported by a limited number of proprietary GIS, many manufacturers have committed to supporting the standard. It aims to provide a platform-independent method for archiving and transferring spatially referenced raster products.
HDFThe Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) is a common format for storing scientific data and can come in a number of versions and subsets/models (e.g.. HDF4, HDF5, HDF-SDS, HDS-EOF)[2][3].
JPEGJoint Photographic Expert Group. The original name of the committee that designed the standard image compression algorithm. JPEG is designed for compressing either full colour or grey-scale digital images of 'natural', real-world scenes. It does not work so well on non-realistic images, such as cartoons or line drawings. JPEG does not handle compression of black-and-white (1-bit-per-pixel) images or moving pictures (Walker 1993).
TIFFTagged Interchange File Format. An industry-standard raster data format. TIFF supports black-and-white, gray-scale, pseudocolor, and true-color images, all of which can be stored in a compressed or uncompressed format. TIFF is commonly used in archiving and desktop publishing and serves as an interface to numerous scanners and graphic arts packages (ESRI 1996). When archiving with the TIFF format, LZW compression should not be used. Variations on TIFF i.e. GeoTIFF (single file) and TIFF world files (a TIFF with an accompanying .tfw file) both allow TIFF images to be georeferenced for inclusion in GIS systems.

Proprietary Image Formats

FormatDescription
ENVIA simple binary file used by the proprietary ENVI software package[4].
ERDAS Imagine (.img)A proprietary raster format native to the ERDAS Imagine application. The software also supports a wide range of export options.
ERDAS ER Mapper (.alg, .ers)A proprietary format native to the ER Mapper application but, as with other ERDAS applications, a wide range of alternative export formats are available.
MicroImages TNTMipsA single 'project' format that can contain a range of data types (raster, vector, etc.) native to the TNTMips application.
PCI Geomatica (PCIDSK .pix)A proprietary format native to the PCI Geomatics Geomatica application (which also supports a wide range of export formats[5]).
SPOT (DIMAP)An open format used primarily for raster images but with the capability to contain vector data. The format is partly based on GeoTIFF[6].
Sun Raster Format (.ras)A raster format native to Sun UNIX platforms.

[1] http://help.arcgis.com/en/arcgisdesktop/10.0/help/index.html#//009t00000010000000
[2] http://www.hdfgroup.org/why_hdf/
[3] http://www.ncl.ucar.edu/Applications/HDF.shtml
[4] http://www.geol.hu/data/online_help/Making_ENVI_Format_Files.html
[5] http://www.pcigeomatics.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=76&Itemid=4
[6] http://www.spotimage.com/web/en/235-the-dimap-format.php